In the present system for selecting officials, those who memorize assiduously, recite extensively, and have some knowledge of literary composition are called “splendid talents of extraordinary accomplishment” or “men of virtue, wise, square, and upright.” These are the categories from which the ministers of state are chosen. Those whose memories are not so strongly developed and [who] cannot recite so extensively, yet have some knowledge of literary composition and have also studied poetry in the shi and fu forms, are called “advanced scholars” (jinshi). The highest of these are also selected as ministers of state. It can be seen without any question that the skills and knowledge acquired by men in these two categories do not fit them to serve as ministers. …

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